Crude Oil Stabilization
Crude oil can be stabilized by degassing the dissolved gases from the crude and by stabilizing the True Vapor Pressure [TVP] using a liquid ring vacuum pump or compressor. This is done by pulling vacuum on the crude tank and pulling compression at discharge. TVP fluctuates based on changes in ambient temperatures, which may impact the safety of crude storage tanks.
Crude oil is generally processed to produce gasoline and other Hydrocarbon fuels via either atmospheric or vacuum distillation in refineries.
This application involves applying a vacuum to a crude oil distilling column. The combination of heat and vacuum separates the crude oil into different components based on their boiling temperature. Its purpose is to enhance the recovery of the lighter components, such as gasoline. Vacuum distillation is more energy efficient than the atmospheric distillation tower.
Vent Gas Compression
Non-condensable light Hydrocarbon gases from the crude distillation tower and other refinery vents are collected in a common header and piped to either flare or vent gas compressors. These compressors compress vent gases that have some fuel value (BTU'S) up to the desired discharge pressure and burn to recover the energy. Often the pay back period is very short and recovering of the vent gas is very desirable environmentally.
Vapor Recovery/ Gas Boosting
This application differs from vent gas recovery in that the vapors recovered are of a relatively fixed composition rather than a variable mixture. A typical application is capturing gases vented from storage tanks. The depth of vacuum is closely controlled in order to protect the storage tanks. Usually the discharge pressure is relatively low. Often these gases are returned to the process, or are liquefied and returned to the storage tanks.
Flare gas recovery can be described as the sewage system of a refinery or gas recovery at a production sight. It is normally considered waste gas due to the composition of the gas. Since these are undesirable HC gases, these gases are generally sent to flare to be burned off.
Often times, there is usable, good-quality gas with some residual BTU's value being burned off. This gas, once separated, can be recovered and compressed from low-pressure compressors to large pipeline compressors. These normally reciprocating compressors ultimately compress the recovered gas to a gas plant for processing and may be used for cogeneration.
The process of "waste to energy" is applied here, as it is economical to recover the majority of the flared off gas and utilize it as a source of energy and revenue. Minimizing the flaring of gas is both an environmental and lost revenue issue and opportunity.
Filtering or de-waxing is the process of recovering waxy compounds from production of Hydrocarbon based oils. By removing waxy compounds from oils, it improves its quality and desirability. Liquid ring vacuum pumps are pulling vacuum on continuously rotating disc or drum type filters that may contain inert Nitrogen gas with chilled [MIBK] Methyl Iso-butyl Ketone solvent. If higher vacuum levels are required, then a combination of a mechanical blower and liquid ring vacuum pumps are installed as a hybrid.